refer to : <言葉が>~を意味する

The word perturbed in this sentence refers to the feeling of worry and upset that she was experiencing.
この文の中のperturbed という単語は、彼女が経験していた不安と動揺の気持ちを表している。
speak out against : ~に声高に反対する、~を非難する

Do not stay silent; let's speak out against this atrocity en masse.
黙っていたらだめだ。 この残虐行為に対してみんなで非難の声を上げよう。
pay the price : 代償を払う、報いを受ける

I paid the price for my foolishness, learning a good life lesson along the way.
hedge one's bets : (危険を分散させるために)複数のものに賭ける、両面作戦を取る

Wise investors hedge their bets by investing across several asset classes.
as it were : いわば、言うなれば

Chikamatsu Monzaemon is one of Japan's most famous playwrights, Japan's Shakespeare, as it were.
pass the buck : 責任を転嫁する

Everyone involved in the cover-up, including the company president, was passing the buck, saying they knew nothing about it.
take down.../take...down : ・・・を倒す、やっつける

After they had grappled for a while, the yokozuna took his opponent down with an expert throw.
get over : (困難などを)乗り越える

Look, I know he really hurt your feelings, but just let it go, get over it, and get on with your life.
make amends : 償う、埋め合わせをする

I was a defiant, unruly teenager and knowingly hurt my parents in many ways, for which I am still now making amends.
十代の頃の私は反抗的な手に負えない子どもで、いろいろと故意に親を傷つけてしまった。 今もまだその埋め合わせをしているところだ。
learn one's lesson : 懲りる、教訓を得る

After losing a lot of money in the stock market, I learned my lesson.